Extraction of the tooth is a procedure involving the extraction of the diseased tooth that cannot be treated by other preservative means thus avoiding possibly serious infections.
Dental extraction can be simple or surgical.
The most common procedure of dental extraction is the simple extraction.
If it is noted that excessive force is needed to carry out the extraction or a substantial part of the dental crown is missing and access to the root is difficult, surgical extraction will be recommended.
There are several reasons for recommending that a tooth be extracted.
Here are a few of these mentioned below:
- Teeth that are broken, fractured, affected by decay and that cannot be rebuilt
- In the case of advanced periodontitis, cysts or complicated sinusitis
- The teeth are poorly positioned or facing the wrong way and cannot be recovered using orthodontic techniques
- Impacted teeth
- Extraction of teeth for orthodontic purposes
When a tooth is diseased due to severe decay or is irreversibly damaged and cannot be healed, dental extraction will take place.
Extracting the tooth will prevent the spread of infection to other teeth and the rest of the body, prevents the loss of bone and the development and aggravation of the periodontal disease.
Teeth often produce a series of problems in their own and harmonious development. Extraction of an impacted tooth can prevent infection, destruction of the bone and adjacent teeth.
Tooth extraction is also a useful method for orthodontic purposes as it offers the possibility of creating more space on the arcade for the position of the teeth that pose grave consequences in the development of blockage, chewing and swallowing.
Surgical methods for delaying the dental extraction
In cases in which the anatomical characteristics or other pathological procedures permit this, the dentist may use the following auxiliary surgical methods to prolong the life of the natural tooth and to delay the dental extraction:
- Periapical curettage – this is an endodontical surgical procedure in which the tissue affecting the periapical region (around the end of the root of the tooth) is removed;
- Apicale resection (apicectomy) - implying the surgical removal of the apex (the final part of the root of a tooth) and the bone tissue affected;
- Root resectioning – involves the removal of one or several roots of a tooth that has more than one root leaving only the part of the crown attached to the same root.
Pain and recommendation following tooth extraction
No one likes dental extraction as it causes pain (but not always).
However, new discoveries in dental surgery have facilitated this procedure, successfully reducing pain and discomfort that were otherwise very common.
Doctors now use anaesthetic, which makes extraction more comfortable and eliminates or at least reduces the patient’s pain and anxiety.
In order not to experience pain or discomfort following dental extraction, you must follow all the dentist’s recommendations, some of which include the following:
- Take the medicine you have been prescribed;
- SWALLOW YOUR SALIVA;
- APPLY AN ICE PACK TO THE AREA OPERATED ON as soon as possible after the operation, the same day in order to limit the pain, swelling and bleeding;
- In order to relax, choose a sedentary position (armchair, ordinary chair, etc.);
- You should prefer FOOD THAT IS SOFT AND COLD or tepid during the first week after the operation;
- If a mouth wash (Corsodyl) has been prescribed, carry this out in a passive manner, that is, without gargling or pressure on the cheeks so as not to provoke bleeding;
- Brush your teeth normally without touching the site of the operation;
- When sleeping, raise the head by placing 2 or 3 pillows;
- Arrange a checkup appointment one week after your operation.
YOU MUST NOT:
- LIE DOWN as soon as you are home
- SMOKE OR DRINK ALCOHOL as this will prolong the scarring
- Drink or eat cold things during the first few days
- Take antiseptic mouth washes in order to stop bleeding
- Place your tongue on the wound, suck or spit
DO NOT WORRY
- If you notice spots of blood on your pillow the first few days after your operation
- If you spit out small quantities of blood the first few days
- If you have bruising
- IF YOU BLEED. Bite on a sterile compress for 20 minutes; REPLACE THIS IF NECESSARY.
- IN THE CASE OF UNCONTROLLED BLEEDING:
You should contact us on the following telephone number: 02 346 1144
The possible consequences of tooth extraction:
- It is normal to experience bleeding and swelling after tooth extraction.
- The swelling will last up to 24 hours after the operation and can last up to one week afterwards.
It can be soothed with ice packs on the cheek where the tooth was extracted for 20 minutes from hour-to-hour.
- A patient will sometime experience pain when opening his mouth. This is due to muscle spasms and lockjaw (inability to completely open the mouth).
This condition will however pass after a few days.
Contraindications for tooth extraction
In some situations, tooth extractions must be temporarily delayed due to unfavourable circumstances in order to obtain the conditions for the operation. These situations may include the following:
- Acute inflammatory processes due to diseased teeth as in this situation
- In the case of acute rhinogenic sinusitis, dental extraction is delayed up to the point when the inflammation is less intense.
- In the case of stomatitis (disease of the oral cavity) as this oral disease has a different concentration of microbes that may penetrate the body via an injury following dental extraction
- In the case of myocardial infarction, tooth extraction is contraindicated 6-to-12 months after the infarction.
- Acute leukaemia
- Tooth extraction is prohibited in pregnant women in the first and the third quarter.
- Certain treatment followed by the patients such as anticoagulant treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Before extracting the tooth, the advantages and disadvantages of the operation will be weighed up.
If extraction is inevitable, it is necessary to understand the importance of substituting the missing teeth.
The remaining teeth will start to migrate to fill in the empty space produced by the tooth extraction.
This displacement may lead to biting problems that may in time cause jaw problems.
Hygiene may be a problem for the displaced teeth, which is why they are more sensitive to gum diseases, tooth decay and so increases the risk of losing those. This is why it is essential to replace missing teeth by bridges, dentures or dental implants.